Die Themenstellung ^
Rechtsetzung im Spannungsfeld von Rechtsetzungstechnik und Informationstechnik (Günther Schefbeck) ^
Datensicherheit und Datenschutz im parlamentarischen Prozess (Wolfgang Engeljehringer) ^
Juristische Chatbots und ihre Verwendung in der Rechtsetzung (Hannes Stefko) ^
The Impact of Advanced IT systems on Policy- and Law-making (Tom van Engers) ^
The availability of huge amounts of data, the growth of powerful IT tools, and the explosive use of (partly) autonomous systems, have made clear that the slow learning and adapting process in the current policy- and law-making cycle is no longer effective as a means of controlling society and protecting the interests of its citizens. In this workshop contribution the current problems in this policy- and law-making cycle will be analysed and exemplified with actual examples. The multi-layered problems that have become overt when designing advanced IT solutions e.g. in autonomous driving vehicles, automated trading systems etc. These developments require a much more proactive and less single perspective way of thinking and working from all having a role in the policy- and law-making cycle. This contribution will argue for more interdisciplinary and multiple perspective collaboration in ecosystems with participants from government, academia and industry and give some examples of such future ecosystems and how they would contribute to more effective and efficient control of society.
Akoma Ntoso for Accessibility of FAO Resolutions (Monica Palmirani) ^
Akoma Ntoso is an international Legal XML standard, now approved by an OASIS body as Committee Specifications, developed for modelling legislative, parliamentary, and judiciary documents using Semantic Web design principles. However, other types of normative and regulative documents can also take benefit from being represented in Akoma Ntoso in order to describe, in a formal manner, the structure, the components (e.g., attachment or document included inside the main document), the references to and from other documents, the semantic annotation of some particular parts of the regulative language (e.g., action, purpose, agent, role), the workflow of the creation process, the modifications over time.
In this light FAO has modelled basic texts (e.g., Constitution), council reports, codex standards and resolutions since its first Session in 1945. From this deep theoretical and empirical analysis, conducted by an FAO team and CIRSFID-UNIBO, we have defined specific guidelines how to use Akoma Ntoso in this specific scenario. On the basis of this work, the UN High Level Committee on Management (HLCM) of the Chief Executive Board for Coordination (CEB) launched a similar initiative in June 2016. They adopted a profile of Akoma Ntoso (AKN4UN) as the UN common standard in March 2017.
The presentation intends to show how Akoma Ntoso itself improves the accessibility of the FAO resolutions using customized AKN schema, LIME-editor markup methodology, and web portal usability principles. The focus is laid on the combination of legal analysis (e.g., FAO resolutions), markup methodology (e.g., customization of AKN for FAO), semantic annotations (e.g., ontologies), XML queries (e.g., complex extractions from XML files), and user interface design principles (e.g., graphical presentation of the results).
Engaging Deliberative Systems for Citizens Deliberating about European Directives and Regulations (Luca Cervone/Monica Palmirani) ^
In the last decade, scholars of Deliberative Democracy have defined the new concept of Deliberative Systems, i.e. deliberative environments in which decision-making procedures are handled thoroughly through several tools and software applications interconnected and designed around the physical and cognitive characteristics of final users in order to keep them continuously engaged in the discussion.
In such a scenario, both the design of the whole Deliberative System and the design of each one of the interconnected tool must follow a set of requirements and must implement a set of features that are needed to ensure the democratic legitimacy of the deliberation.
For instance, the European Commission holds online participation tools aimed to engage citizens in the discussion about sensitive issues related to the member states of the European Union (https://ec.europa.eu/info/consultations_en [last visited in January 2018]). However, these tools have several issues to the extent that they are not compliant with the legitimacy requirements of Deliberative Systems, that they could be not usable for common citizens, and that there is not any evidence that the diverse tools used for the deliberation are actually interconnected.
In this presentation, firstly we will describe a framework of features and requirements for the implementation of a Deliberative Chat and, thus, a simple-to-use and citizen-friendly chat application that can engage users to participate in discussions about draft directives and regulations of the European Commission while creating legitimated discussions and reports of the discussions.
Secondly, we will start the actual implementation of the chat in order to show the proper software technologies that can be used to implement the Deliberative Chat and others online deliberative tools that can be interconnected to Deliberative Systems.
Thirdly, and lastly, we will introduce other concepts and technologies that can be used in the implementation of the chat, for instance, techniques of gamification to keep the citizens engaged in the discussions, as well as the blockchain to strengthen the transparency of the deliberation.
After the presentation, the attendees will have a wide sight on Deliberative Democracy and Deliberative Systems, on technologies for the implementation of online and gamified tools for Deliberation in Deliberative Systems, and on brand-new technologies that can solve well-known and long-standing problems related to the legitimacy of online deliberation and participation.